Image by Prakriti Sharma

It is a known fact that water is one of the most important natural resources on earth. Dominantly responsible for life on earth, more than 99% of water present on our planet is unusable by humans and a lot of different living beings . Taking these facts into consideration, human beings need to realize that the utilization of this life-sustaining resource, must be done judiciously, and conservatively.

People, especially those residing in urban areas, with easy access to water, tend to take this finite resource for granted, not realizing its vulnerability to over-usage.  Urban populations, especially of developed and developing countries, who have been shielded from water crises by their administration, are also starting to experience poor sanitation and a shortage of water supply today. Even then, shocking contrasts exist in the distribution of available water. This difference may be linked to the divergent economic conditions of the population of an area.

However, economic differences are not always responsible for unfair water distribution. Urban areas accommodate significant rural-to-urban migration, resulting in an urban population explosion, and the rise of overcrowded slums. These slums have either poor or almost no sanitation facilities, and sparse availability of water. Rural-to-urban migration essentially occurs due to limited outland opportunities.

Rural areas are the worst affected by water crises and generally lack access to water. In some areas, the village population has to walk great distances just to fetch a few liters of water for their daily sustenance. The time invested in these activities costs opportunities, especially of women and school-going children. This negatively impacts their health and productivity. Such situations may arise from either a failure of institutions to ensure a proper water supply or simply a lack of essential infrastructure, owing to the remoteness of the area and consequent difficulties in setting up infra. The advent of Global Warming, due to anthropogenic actions, along with Climate Change, has made water availability much less predictable. Droughts are adding to water scarcity and an increased frequency of flooding is threatening and contaminating water resources. As mentioned before, rural areas face the worst of these adversities, especially since their sustenance is majorly dependent on Mother Nature. Water is slowly becoming more of an unnamed luxury than a right. Data provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that approximately one fifth of the population on earth is facing water scarcity.

The need of the hour is to educate current and upcoming generations of the populace, regarding this increasingly dominant issue. Administrative agencies, in collaboration with local representative bodies, need to formulate an action plan to tackle the emerging crisis. If water is given that extra focus and used judiciously, it holds the potential to change lives. Adequate access of quality water for all can bring about large-scale changes, eminently in the rural sector.

So what can Clean Water do? We have highlighted how people’s lives can change, just with their water issues sorted.

  • Make Way for Nutritional Security

Diseases from dirty water kill more people every year than all forms of violence, including war (as found out by our friends at Charity Water). People with no or limited access to safe drinking water, have to face malnourishment and loss of productivity. Access to clean water will bring global food and nutritional insurance and will also help reduce infant mortality rates, caused by diarrheal diseases that rise due to unhealthy conditions and improper sanitation.

  • Increase Employment Opportunities

The world still generates 66% of electricity from fossil fuels. Along with the development of renewable sources of energy, we still need to cater to the needs of the non-renewable sources already in progress. Fossil fuel production and even nuclear energy production is highly water intensive. Proper access to water can lead to generation of electricity and thus, create a lot of employment opportunities. However, non-renewable sources cannot be considered feasible in the long run.

  • Help Empower Women

In low income countries, women primarily bear the responsibility of fetching water, which is time-consuming and tiresome. In South Africa, in poor rural households, women who fetch water and fuel wood, spend 25% less time in paid employment. Due to poor sanitation, women and girls have to walk to open defecation sites and are vulnerable to misdeeds. They also have specific hygiene requirements during pregnancy and menstruation. With proper sanitation and easy access to water, time is saved and further, new employment opportunities for women are created.

  • Help Increase Agricultural Productivity

Agriculture is known to be the biggest user of water, and adequate availability of water will lead to agricultural efficiency. With the rise in populations, demand for food has been increasing exponentially. Efficient and precise irrigation methods along the agrifood chain can help salvage water and energy.

It is in fact surprising to see how water has the ability to change lives, to such an extent that it can improve standards of living. Thus, there is an urgent need to create awareness and work towards protecting the sources of water and help everyone get their fair share. Traditional methods like rainwater harvesting are a great measure to work towards conservation of water. Renewable sources of energy reduce dependence on water to generate electricity. Solar powered irrigation pumps are also a great alternative that work towards a definite usage of water, mechanized with a sustainable solution.

It’s time we appreciate what we have, before it turns into something we used to have.

Written By – Prakriti Sharma

Edited By – Anirban Banerjee



What is Animal Husbandry

A majority of the Indian population is primarily dependent on the agriculture sector with around half of the population being involved in this. Apart from the mainstream cash-cropping exercise, a majority of this sector is involved with Animal Husbandry. In India, a large number of farmers are dependent on animals for their livelihood. In addition to milk, meat, eggs, wool, and hide(skin), animals like bullock are still considered as the backbone of agriculture and serve as a major source of power and transportation for the rural population. A gross value of this sector is nearly about 25% of the total agricultural output of India. India had approximately 25 percent of the world’s cattle, with a collective herd of 193 million head. India also had 110 million goats, 75 million water buffaloes, 44 million sheep, and 10 million pigs. Milk production in FY 1990 was estimated to have reached 53.5 million tons, and egg production had reached a level of 23.3 billion eggs. Today, India has the world’s largest dairy herd (composed of cows and buffaloes), at over 304 million strong, and stands first in milk production, with 112.5 million tons of milk produced in 2009-2010.

Problems Faced by Animals During Extreme Heat

Animals naturally tend to face a lot of problems during the summer season, mainly because of the intolerable heat. Extreme heat causes significant stress for all animals and as a reason, it results in low production rate, a decrease in output and quality products, and risk of falling ill. Farmers of all type have shades to prevent their livestock from extreme weather condition, but these shades are sometimes inadequate in providing a suitable and cool environment. Further, these shelters are built on small patches of land with a high density of livestock, that is responsible for further degradation of output in production. For instance, dark skinned animals, dairy cattle, and young animals are at a higher risk of heat stress and these types of animals should be watched more closely for signs of heat stress during days of high temperature. These problems cannot be neglected in a long run and often farmers rely upon temporary solutions to resolve them. Another way to avoid the heat is to take the animals to a water body like a pond or any other large water source and leave them (like buffaloes) in water for at least 4 hours a day. The problem with this approach is that not all dairy farmers have access to a pond or a river and this method is not practical for big dairy farms.

Solar Powered Foggers: A Revolutionary Innovation for Dairy Farms

Capture 4

A solar powred fogger is a simple device that takes a mixture of water and fresh air as input. These flow under pressure, through a pipe which has multiple nozzles. The resultant mixture, which is developed in a pressurized condition, is then released as mist/fog (this setup is also known as misters or mist systems). The water droplets developed by the system evaporate before they can reach to the ground. This mist form helps in reducing the overall temperature of the animal’s shed. Thus, Foggers are used to maintain humidity and control temperature in a closed environment. This helps in maintaining a suitable and comfortable environment for animals, and keeping them safe from heat strokes and other heat related issues. Overall, this helps in increased output.

Apart from serving the need of dairy farmers, these foggers have other applications as well. These include:

  •         Watering plants in Greenhouses and Poly houses.
  •         Sprinkling the pesticides.

The Solar Fogging Solution

Electricity is still inaccessible across many villages in India. Even if the villages with a proper electrical network, power is not available as per the requirement. Presently, the rural population is largely dependent on diesel for electrical needs and the same applies in the case of foggers. These foggers are primarily being run with the help of diesel as grid electricity is not available in abundance to the farmers. Solar powered foggers have a very low or negligible maintenance cost. Switching from diesel to solar is considered infeasible by many farmers as the solar systems require a high cost for initial setup. Also, during the summer season, when the requirement of these foggers is at peak, these solar powered foggers tend to work at the highest efficiency. Further, emission of smoke from diesel powered foggers can have a dangerous effect on the livestock. Solar powered foggers are safe to use with no carbon emission.

Claro Energy-ICAR Collaboration on Solar Fogger systems

Claro Energy undertook a project in collaboration with Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Claro Energy deployed a solar fogger system at the Patna campus of ICAR. ICAR had been looking for a sustainable solution to keep the temperature of their buffalo shed in control. The project site had a shortage of continuous grid electricity supply and hence deploying a fogger that runs on Grid power wasn’t helpful. Therefore, Claro Energy undertook this project of designing a solar powered fogger for ICAR. This project helped ICAR by providing a desired solution to maintain a suitable temperature in Buffalo shed. This step will result in higher milk production as compared to the past and will provide with a suitable environment for breeding as well.

The System and its Working


The system consists of Solar Modules, DC Motor, Fogging Nozzles, and Pressure generation machine. Here Solar Modules serve as the primary source for energy requirement, converting Solar Energy to Electrical Energy. There is a Change Over Switch connected between the Solar Module and D.C. Motor, that provides the D.C. supply to the motor or other pumps. The D.C. motor has a two-way connection, one with the storage tank, where water is stored for fogging purpose and other with the Fogging Nozzles. A Fogger Machine is used to pressurize the flow of water that serves the purpose of fogging. It combines fresh air with water supply to create mist/fog. Fogging Nozzles generate water droplets that evaporate and helps in maintaining a lower temperature in the shed.

Thus, like any other agricultural necessity, a fogger is the demand of the hour and will significantly boost up the output from Animal Husbandry. Also, due to the lack of grid electricity, or to avoid the high maintenance and running cost of diesel pumps, Solar Powered foggers are the best possible solution that supports economic feasibility in a long run.

Written by: Abhishek

Edited by: Priyanka

Claro Energy has come a long way since its inception. The company’s growth spurt has led to a fair few international mentions. An article recently posted by online Japanese magazine, ‘Project Design’, serves as proof.

Project Design works as a high-level and practical media house that showcases project concepts of ideal businesses conceived by businessmen, administrators, NPO staff, entrepreneurs and focuses on ideas leading to innovation. The article titled ‘Agriculture and Food Challenges in India’ talks about the escalation of Agricultural businesses in India. Written by Siva Ramamoorthy, an active mentor and investor known to have backed many successful startups, it talks about the current entrepreneurial environment in India and the scenario of rising startups in India including the recent promotional campaign of “Startup India” launched by the Indian government.


Screenshot of the Article from Project Design Online

A graduate from Kellogg School of Management with experience in companies like VMWare and Intel, Ramamoorthy mentions Claro as the top most featured startup. He acknowledges Claro Energy as a solar pumping solution provider to Indian farmers who face severe water irrigation difficulties. The article further reads:

“The photovoltaic power generation pump system irrigates approximately 12,000 acres of agricultural land and supports the lives of more than 100,000 people. This is one of the greatest and best uses of photovoltaic power generation in India and is expected to be an innovator to solve the problem of water shortage in agriculture.

Claro Energy is a good example of an entrepreneur with global education and work experience.”

Link to original article:

Written By – Prakriti Sharma

Edited By – Anirban Banerjee


Indian users comprise about 30% of the total volume of the global feature phone market, making it the second largest in the specified field. In 2015, India had 720 million mobile phone users, out of which 320 million were rural mobile phone users. This estimate also included 50 million Smartphone users with access to internet. According to The Rising Connected Consumer in Rural India, a study by the Boston Consulting Group, this share of rural India will jump to 48% by 2020 . Steps taken by the Indian government recently may make this happen sooner than predicted. Digital India, launched in 2015 by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, aims towards the promotion of digital literacy and creation of digital infrastructure for empowering rural communities. Considering that 58% of rural households depend on agriculture as one of their most eminent source of livelihood, the role of Digital Agriculture needs to be considered within Digital India.

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support the transmission of localized information and services working towards making farming socially, economically and environmentally sustainable, while contributing to the delivery of nutritious and economical food for all – this comprises Digital Agriculture. This has also led to the rise and development of mobile apps which are helping existing government schemes, and other agriculture-based information to reach farmers in rural India. This digital change is acting as a game-changer for Indian agricultural conditions.

Here’s a list of 10 mobile apps making agriculture easy –

  1.    Cover art  Kisan Suvidha

 Kisan Suvidha- screenshot

Launched by the PM Narendra Modi in 2016 to work towards empowerment of farmers and development of villages, the app design is neat and offers a user-friendly interface. It provides information on current weather and also the forecast for the next five days, market prices of commodities/crops in the nearest town, knowledge on fertilizers, seeds, machinery etc. The option to to use the app in different languages makes it more widely accessible.



  1. Cover artIFFCO Kisan Agriculture 

 IFFCO Kisan- Agriculture App- screenshot

This app was launched in 2015 and is managed by IFFCO Kisan, a subsidiary of Indian Farmers’ Fertilizer Cooperative Ltd. Its aim is to help Indian farmers make informed decisions through customized information related to their needs. The user can access a variety of informative modules including agricultural advisory, weather, market prices, agriculture information library in the form of text, imagery, audio and videos in the selected language at profiling stage. The app also offers helpline numbers to get in touch with Kisan Call Centre Services.


  1.  Cover art     RML Farmer – Krishi Mitr

 RML Farmer - Krishi Mitr- screenshot

RML Farmer is a one of its kind agricultural app where farmers can keep up with the latest commodity and mandi prices, precise usage of pesticides and fertilizers, farm and farmer related news, weather forecast and advisory. Its also provides agricultural advice and news regarding the government’s agricultural policies and schemes. Users can choose from over 450 crop varieties, 1300 mandis, and 3500 weather locations across 50,000 villages and 17 states of India. It works with the help of specific tools designed to analyze or provide information on different aspects of farming habits. Eg. CropDoc helps the farmers in identifying problems that affects their crops at the right time and suggests corrective actions; Farm Nutri provides general and personalized nutrient recommendations, which are presented in the form of a schedule of fertilizer dosage.


  1.   Cover art    Pusa Krishi

 Pusa Krishi- screenshot

This app was launched in 2016 by the Union Agriculture Minister and aims to help farmers to get information about technologies developed by Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI), which will help in increasing returns to farmers. The app also provides farmers with information related to new varieties of crops developed by Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), resource conserving cultivation practices as well as farm machinery and its implementation will help in increasing returns to farmers.


  1.   Cover art    AgriApp

 AgriApp- screenshot

It provides complete information on Crop Production, Crop Protection and all relevant agriculture allied services. It also enables farmers to access all the information related to “High value, low product” category crops from varieties, soil/ climate, to harvesting and storage procedures. An option to chat with experts, video-based learning, the latest news, online markets for fertilizers, insecticides etc. are also available on this app.


  1.     Cover art  Kheti-badi 
     खेती-बाड़ी Organic Farming Info- screenshot

‘Kheti-Badi’ (खेतीबाड़ी) is a social initiative App. It aims to promote and support ‘Organic Farming’ and provide important information/issues related to farmers in India. Agriculture today is heavily dependent on genetically modified seeds, chemical pesticides and fertilizers; this app helps farmers to switch their chemical farming into organic farming. However, this app is currently only available in four languages(Hindi, English, Marathi and Gujarati).


  1.    Cover art   Whatsapp

 WhatsApp Messenger- screenshot

It may come off as a surprise to many, but one of the most widely used app for texting is bridging gaps between farmers. Departments of Agriculture of a few states have used this public platform to make groups called Progressive Farmers’ which connects sons of the soil through their android devices.  It initially started with groups of top officials with android phones and was later introduced to agricultural communities.


  1.   Cover art     Krishi Gyan

 Krishi Gyan- screenshot

Works on a similar aspect as Whatsapp communication but is considered to be better as it doesn’t require mobile numbers of individuals to stay connected. Apart from providing general information on farming, this application enables Indian farmers to connect with Krishi Gyan experts and ask them questions related to farming, and get answers within the application through notifications. The farmers as well as agriculture enthusiasts can also share their answer with each other.


  1.     Cover art  Crop Insurance

 Crop Insurance- screenshot

The app helps farmers to calculate insurance premium for notified crops and provides information cut-off dates and company contacts for their crop and location. It can also be used to get details of normal sum insured, extended sum insured, premium details and subsidy information of any notified crop in any notified area. It is further linked to its web portal which caters to all stakeholders including farmers, states, insurance companies and banks.


  1. Cover art     AgriMarket

 AgriMarket- screenshot

Launched along with the Crop Insurance app by the government of India, the app has been developed with an aim to keep farmers abreast of crop prices and discourage them to go for distress sales. Farmers can get information related to prices of crops in markets within 50km of their own device location using the AgriMarket Mobile App.


Other apps like SmartCrop, Mandi Trades, Kisaan Market serve as an online marketplace providing space for farmers to sell their produce after collecting information regarding market prices and for customers to compare and buy produce. State specific apps narrow down the user base and help to provide information regarding a specific area. Farm-o-pedia for Gujarat, AgriSmart for Punjab, Krishi Suchak for Karnataka are a few examples of such apps. All these mobile apps are helping reduce transportation, corruption and transactional waste in agriculture and also offer a gateway for resource sharing for farmers. Thus, the apps are helping boost overall business performance and reducing negative environmental impacts of farming. Now, with a click of a button, farmers can access information regarding weather, dealers, market prices, plant protection, agro advisories, IPM practices etc. Thus, these advancements will definitely help bring significant change in the lives of farmers and the field of agriculture.

Written By – Prakriti Sharma

Edited By- Anirban Banerjee

India has about 26 million groundwater pumps, which incur a combined cost of $6 billion to the farmer, annually (source). Yet only 44% of the total cultivable area can be brought under irrigation.When talking about irrigation in India, the first few things that come to mind are big dams, dependency on monsoon, canals, use of expensive pollutants like diesel. In truth, these sources of water for irrigation have remained dominant, since inception, for a country in which more than 50% of the population is dependent on agriculture for living. Agriculture contributes to 15% of India’s total GDP.



Lately though, India has emerged as one of the front runners in the implementation of solar energy.  by using these irrigation facilities. For the rest, farmers are left staring at the rain gods for mercy. The continuous power outage, coupled with monsoon woes, added to the misery of Indian farming and has led to the rise of an energy substitute that doesn’t only reduce the dependency on conventional sources of energy (grid power, diesel generators) but also provides a clean and environment friendly solution in the long run. Solar water pumps offers various solutions.

Solar pumps  run on the electricity generated by photo-voltaic panels or the radiated thermal energy which is collected from sunlight. Solar pumps are useful where grid power is unavailable, or of poor quality and unreliable. The solar pumping systems are widely used for agriculture and livestock, rural /tribal area water supply, forest, and host of other areas where electrification is a challenge. Industries and commercial buildings have also taken recourse to harnessing sun power in right earnest.

India, being a tropical country, receives an abundance of of strong sunlight – paving the way for massive potential in solar energy. Most mainland areas in India get almost 300 days when the sun shines brightly enough to produce up to 5000 kwh solar energy per year.The benefits of solar pumps are not only restricted to irrigation, though. They can offer a various range of applications that can make the users’ lives easier and bring us all a step closer in making India an energy sufficient nation.

Lower cost, bigger benefits :With decreasing prices of solar panels, solar pumps are becoming a more viable solution for farmers. Solar pumps not only lift groundwater from beneath the surface, the have also enabled upliftment of the lives of poor farmers and their families. Savings made from switching to solar water pumps from diesel based ones, can change a farmer’s lifestyle – enabling more crops throughout the year, better seeds, better equipment, healthier livelihoods.


The drinking water solution

Solar pumps are also combating the shortage of clean drinking water. Half of the health hazards faced by India are due unhygienic drinking water. Most of the available freshwater is found in the underground.The various strata of soil, sand, and gravel found underground filter out most disease-causing organisms and harmful chemicals as the water infiltrates through them. Drinking water supply can be met in water scarce areas, areas which face erratic power supply, areas which don’t have access to clean water, and areas which are frequently hit by calamities like drought. Solar pumps can ease access to clean underground drinking water, thus, cutting down the usage of conventional or polluting energy, and contributing towards a healthier nation.

Drip Irrigation

Drip irrigation is an effective mechanism to deliver water directly to the roots, and allows introduction of such crops which would not have survived with a dependence on rainfall or erratic grid power. Solar powered pumps save hours of human labor and are immune to fuel shortage. Additionally, they can be used together in a direct-power system (no batteries) because the solar radiation (which governs pump speed) is also the main driver of evapotranspiration (how much water crops need). Thus, the pump works faster when it is sunny and the plants need more water, and vice-versa.


A Fogger is Machine that pressurizes the flow of water and generates water droplets to maintain humidity and a lower temperature in cow sheds, especially in the hot and dry summers of Northern India. These foggers can receive their water supply from solar pumps at a very low maintenance cost. If diesel were used to power these pumps then its emissions could have a dangerous effect on livestock. Solar powered foggers are safe to use with no carbon emission.

Pisciculture and Fisheries

In pisciculture, or fish farming, water is needed to be supplied from a height in order to supply the fish with much needed oxygen. If these water sources were run by grid power then a sudden power cut could hurt the fish stock by affecting their habitation. This is the worst nightmare for someone who is into fisheries and pisciculture or even aquaculture, where one simply can’t afford to lose livestocks to intense heat and fluctuating temperature. Recirculating the water in the system is much needed in aquaculture. In such cases, solar powered pumps provide a stable and predictable supply of water.

Generating Electricity

Solar pumps are not restricted to being just an irrigation asset. Although expensive, if a compatible battery inverter can be connected to solar panels, farmers can sell the extra electricity generated by the solar panels to their neighbors. Solar pumps can, thus, become risk-free income generating assets for farmers. This extra income can lead to a better lifestyle.

Easy installation, low maintenance, zero fuel cost, mobility options, a long life of 20-30 years – these are only some of the factors that have made solar pumps increasingly popular throughout the world. Even if solar pumps are being used for smaller operations, the benefits remain huge.They are not only helping to keep the environment clean but also uplifting lives.

Written By Priyanka

Edited By Anirban